|Treaty||Signed/Into force||Major Points|
|Aarhus Convention on Access to information for public participation in decision making and access to justice in environmental matters||1998||Aarhus is a Danish city
Adopted at the fourth ministerial conference in the ‘Environment for
Europe’ process Links environmental rights and human rights
India – No
|Vienna Convention for the protection of Ozone layer||1985/1988||Does not include legally binding reduction goals for the use of CFCs
At Vienna Conference
|Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the Ozone layer||1987/1989||It is a protocol to the Vienna Convention
“perhaps the single most successful international agreement” –
196 states ratified
Includes CFCs, HCFCs
|Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their disposal||1989/1992||Particularly to prevent waste transfer from Developed to LDCs
Signed but not ratified: Afghanistan, Haiti, US
|Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in international trade||1998/2004||Rotterdam is a city in Netherlands
Endosulfan is proposed to be added to the list
|Stockholm Convention on persistence organic pollutants||2001/2004||173 parties|
|Bamako Convention||1991/1998||On the ban on the import into Africa and the Control of movement of
Hazardous waste within Africa
Negotiated by 12 nations of Organisation of African Unity at
|The CBD Framework|
|Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety||Seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by
living modified organisms resulting from modern technology. The
Protocol applies to the transboundary movement, transit, handling and
use of all living modified organisms that may have adverse effects on
the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also
into account risks to human health
|CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. AkaWashington Convention||1973/1975||Under IUCN. Trade in specimen should not threaten the survival of
plants and animals. Only one species under it ‘Spix Macaw’ has become
extinct in the wild.
|Convention on Migratory Species aka Bonn Convention||1979/1983||To conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species|
|Antarctic Treaty System||1959/1961||12 original members. HQ: Buenos Aires. India joined in 1983. Sets aside
Antarctica as a scientific preserve and bans military activity there. First
arms control treaty during the cold war.
|International Whaling Commission||1946||Signed in Washington. Moratorium on whaling adopted in 1986.
Following countries havnt adopted the moratorium: Norway,
|UN Convention to Combat Desertification||1994 (on the basis of Agenda 21)/1996||First and only internationally legally binding framework set up to
address the problem of desertification.
2006: Int. Year of Deserts and Desertification.
Non-parties: Iraq, Montenegro, Vatican
Meetings: 1st – Rome 1997, 9th – Buenos Aires, 2009
- Bruntland Report (1983) was the first publication and recognition of the term ‘Sustainable Development’
- “meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of the future generation”
- Three pillarsof sustainable development (Bruntland)
- Care and respect for People, Planet and Prosperity (Commercial Activities) <hence poverty alleviation, conservation and business development>
- These three pillars are of equal importance
- SD is about avalue system. It is not a scientific formula.
- Thinking beyond pure self-gratification to awareness that harm to one will eventually be harm to all.
- Interconnectednessand interdependence of all things
- All three pillars have equal importance. Focus on only one of them will unbalance the whole
- SD is a necessity, not a luxury that we can afford to miss.
Questioning Development <too detailed; at times peripheral. Be choosy>
- Current practices must change
- Should shatter the ‘development’ myth. Simply economic growth will not create more jobs and more wealth for all.
- Steady-state economics. Economic growth is measured in terms of how much we produce and consume, and what we destroy in the process need not be included in the calculations.
- 20% of the world consumes 80% of its resources
- According to UNDP, consumption of goods and services in 1997 was twice that in 1975 and six times more than in 1950.
- An estimated 1 billion people still do not have the means to meet their basic needs.
- Inequalities are increasing. The assets of world’s three richest men are greater than the combined national product of 48 poorest countries.
- Higher crime rates are associated with wider income gaps
- Jobless growth.
- Under-nutrition is still a huge problem among children
Economic Growth and Sustainability
- Over-consumption has led to depletion of resources
- Main environmental threats
- Depletion of resources
- Global warming
- Expansion of waste arising from production and consumption
- Population pressure
- Loss of biodiversity and extinction of species.
- Green National Income Account
- Conventional national income accounting does not capture the environmental degradation due to production and consumption
- This omission leads to misrepresentation of improvements in social welfare
- Since there is no market for many environmental resources, it is difficult to place monetary values on them
- Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare: adjusts the national income to make an allowance for defensive spending (i.e. that incurred in cleaning up for pollution and other forms of environmental damage)
- Economic Sustainability
- Calls for reforms in the manner that we conduct our economic activity
- Removing unfair trade barriers and subsidies that harm the environment
- Upholding the polluter pays principle
- Tax not on labour but on consumption <already there in the form of indirect taxes>
- Pricing products in terms of value they have deducted from the common natural base
- Increase resource productivity
- Sustainable agriculture
- Use of practices and methods to maintain/enhance the economic viability of agricultural production, natural resource base, and other ecosystems which are influenced by agricultural activities
- Minimizing the adverse impact on the natural resources base
- Flexible farming systems to manage the risks associated with climate and markets
- Sustainable forest management
- ‘Forest Principle’ adopted at the 1992 Rio Summit
- In 2007, GA adopted the Non Legally Binding Instrument on All Types of Forests. The instrument is the first of its kind and is committed to promote SFM by bringing all stakeholders together
- Ministerial Conference on Protection of Forests in Europe defined SFM as the attainment of balance between society’s increasing demands for forest products and benefits, and the preservation of forest health and diversity.
- Forest managers must assess and integrate a wide array of sometimes conflicting factors to produce sound forest plans
- Ecosystems approachhas been adopted by the CBD. The CBD definition of Ecosystems Approach is known as the Malawi Principles.
- Ecosystems Approach is a strategy of management of land, water and living resources in a way that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Focused on use of scientific methodologies for each level of biological organisation and their interaction.
- SFM was recognised by the parties to CBD in 2004 to be a concrete means of applying the Ecosystems Approach to forest ecosystems
- Objectives of SFM
- Maintain environmental stability through preservation of ecological balance that has been adversely affected due to the depletion of forest cover
- Preserve the natural heritage of the country
- Improve productivity of forests
- Protecting through cooperation with local communities on the principle of Joint Forest Management
- One of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world
- National Forest Policy 1988emphasizes environmental stability and maintenance of ecological balance
- Existing infrastructure for forest protection is inadequate
- Surveys not carried out in many areas. Question of tribal rights
- Protect from forest fires
- Integrated Forest Protection Scheme
- 10thFYP. In all States and UTs
- Formed by merger of two 9thFYP schemes: ‘Forest Fire Control and Management’ and ‘Bridging of Infrastructure Gaps in the Forestry Sector in the North Eastern Region and Sikkim’
- Infrastructure development: survey and demarcation, strengthening the infrastructure for Forest Protection Division
- Forest fire control and management
- Implementing agencies
- Central Component: Forest Protection Division, MoEF; Forest Survey of India, Dehradun; Central institutions like Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (Dehradun), IIFM (Bhopal) etc shall be involved
- State Component: Forest dept of the concerned state/UT
- Fairness in the access to and benefits from the Earth’s resources
- Impact of poverty on environment/Environment and poverty are related issues
- Diverting resources to non-productive areas
- Health and SD
- Environment and public health are inter-related
- Agenda 21was adopted at the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) [Earth Summit] in 1992
- It also places particular emphasis on the need to take health considerations into account in planning for SD
- Need for holistic approach
Water and SD
- Agriculture consumes nearly 70 pc of water consumption worldwide, industry -22 pc and household activities – 8 pc [WDR, 2010]
- Geographical distribution of water: just nine countries account for 60 pc of all available freshwater supplies
- Industrial use takes about 60 pc of water in rich countries and 10 pc in the rest.
- Use of sea water
- Judicial use of freshwater
- Development of salt-resistant crops
SD in a globalising world
- Globalisation is increasing the gap between the rich and the poor
- It has to be steered so that it serves not only the commercial interests but social needs of development
- Mechanisms to safeguard trade and livelihoods, especially in developing countries, must be evolved and negotiated to make globalisation an effective vehicle of SD
- Industrialised countries must continue to assist the developing countries as well as promote trade
- Environment and social causes must not be used selectively to erect trade barriers against developing countries