Grassland Grassland, area in which the vegetation is dominated by a nearly continuous cover of grasses. Grasslands occur in environments conducive to the growth of this plant cover but not to that of taller plants, particularly trees and shrubs. The factors preventing establishment of such taller, woody vegetation are varied. Grasslands are one of the … Read more


Mountains Mountain, landform that rises prominently above its surroundings, generally exhibiting steep slopes, a relatively confined summit area, and considerable local relief. Mountains generally are understood to be larger than hills, but the term has no standardized geological meaning. Very rarely do mountains occur individually. In most cases, they are found in elongated ranges or … Read more

Rain Water Harvesting (1)

 Rain Water Harvesting Water forms the lifeline of any society. Water is essential for the environment, food security and sustainable development. All the known civilizations have flourished with water source as the base and it is true in the present context too. Availability of drinking water and provision of sanitation facilities are the … Read more


 Fisheries: ‘Fisheries’ sector is becoming a subsector of Primary sector with consistently increasing contribution to the state economy. The state government envisages development in fisheries sector with a multi pronged strategy with essential focus on increasing fish production and thereby ensure sustainable development. Development of fisheries through effective value chain and boosting exports, … Read more

Oceans And Continents

 Introduction to Continents and Ocean Basins Continents and ocean basins being fundamental relief features of the globe are considered as ‘relief features of the first order’. It is, therefore, desirable to inquire into their mode of possible origin and evolu­tion. Different views, concepts, hypotheses and theo­ries regarding the origin of the continents and … Read more

Disaster Management Models

 Disaster management models. Roles and responsibilities of stakeholders including community, Concept of first responders Disaster management (DM) is a challenging domain to model because of the variety of dynamic characteristics attached to the domain. Metamodeling is a model-driven approach that describes how semantic domain models can be built into an artifact called a … Read more

Marine Resources And EEZ

 Marine Resources – Economic significance and EEZ Economic significance of marine resources Marine energy Marine energy or marine power (also sometimes referred to as ocean energy, ocean power, or marine and hydrokinetic energy) refers to the energy carried by ocean waves, tides, salinity, and ocean temperature differences. The movement of water in the … Read more

Canadian Pacific Railway

 Canadian pacific railway The Canadian Pacific Railway company was incorporated in 1881. Its original purpose was the construction of a transcontinental railway, a promise to British Columbia upon its entry into Confederation. The railway — completed in 1885 — connected Eastern Canada to BC and played an important role in the development of … Read more

Role Of Agriculture In Indian Economic Development

 Role of agriculture in Indian economic development-interrelationship between agriculture, industry and service sectors Role of agriculture in Indian economic development Contribution to National Income From the very beginning, agriculture is contributing a major portion to our national income. In 1950-51, agriculture and allied activities contributed about 59 per cent of the total national … Read more

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