Minerals of Odisha
- Odisha topped among all the states as it contributed above 10% to total mineral production in the country.
- The value of principal minerals produced remained at Rs. 22567.67 crore, an increase of 31.64% over the previous year period.
- The value of minor minerals remained Rs. 85.68 crores.
- Coal, bauxite, chromite, iron & manganese ore and limestone almost contributed 99% of the total value of mineral production.
- The state is gifted with large reserves of bauxite, chinaclay, chromite, coal, dolomite, fireclay, graphite, gemstones, iron ore, limestone, manganese ore, mineral sand, nickel ore, pyrophylite and quartz.
- The rich mineral wealth of the state is attributed to its favourable Geological condition & setup.
- Situated on the eastern fringe of the peninsular India, Orissa has about 72.5%of the area occupied by Precambrian metamorphic rocks (of Archaean and Proterozoic age) which hosts the majority of the minerals.
- The Gondwanas hosting the coal resources occur over about 8% of the landmass.
- The tertiary and quaternary formations, occupying rest of the area, provide avenues for aluminous/ nickeliferous laterite and heavy minerals (in beach sand).
- The Archaean rocks in northern Orissa include the Supracrustal belts of meta sedimentary rocks including Iron Ore Super Group having deposits of iron, manganese, gold and base metals. These are also represented by the gneisses, granite, migmatite (Singhbhum, Bonai and Mayurbhanj Plutons) and mafic/ ultramafic intrusives. These intrusive are linked with the chromite, titaniferous vanadiferous magnetite and PGM.
- The Bastar cratonic complex of Archaean age in the Western Orissa includes gneisses, granite, migmatite and Strontium‐Tantalum‐Niobium bearing pegmatites.
- Proterozoic rocks in the western Orissa exhibit platformal sedimentary formations and associated limestone deposits.
- In north‐western Orissa they contain meta-sediments of low to medium metamorphic grade classified as the Gangpur Group, which host manganese, limestone and Lead‐Zinc deposits.
- In central and southern Orissa, the Proterozoics are represented by the Eastern ghats granulite belt comprising of khondalite, charnockite, migmatite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks accounting for the mineralization of bauxite, manganese, graphite and gemstones.
- The Mesozoic rocks of Gondwana Super Group host the major coal resources of the state. Formations of Cenozoic age occupy the eastern coastal plains in form of alluvial sediments, ash beds and low level laterite, providing avenues for occurrence of beach sand minerals and building materials. The deltaic fans extending into offshore regions play hosts for oil and gas.
The chromite, nickel, bauxite, iron ore and coal resources of the state of the Odisha respectively stand at a staggering 83, 92, 55, 38 and 26 percent of India’s total reserves.
Mineral Found in Odisha tabular information
|Sl. No.||District of Odisha||Minerals Found in Respective Districts|
|2||Bargarh||China clay, Dolomite, Graphite, Limestone|
|4||Bolangir||Bauxite, China Clay, Graphite, Manganese, Quartz/silica sand, Quartzite, granite|
|6||Boudh||China Clay, Graphite, Quartz/silica sand, granite|
|8||Dhenkanal||Chromite, Coal, fireclay, Iron Ore (H), Quartzite, titanium, granite|
|9||Ganjam||Garnet, sillimanite, titanium, zircon, granite|
|10||Jajpur||Chromite, Iron Ore (H), Quartzite, titanium, Cobalt, nickel|
|12||Kalahandi||Bauxite, Graphite, Limestone, Quartz/silica sand|
|15||Keonjhar||Bauxite, China Clay, Chromite, Dolomite, dunite / pyroxenite, Iron Ore (H), manganese, pyrophyllite, Quartzite, talc/steatite, Asbestos, granite, nickel, platinum group of metals|
|16||Koraput||Bauxite, Dolomite, Graphite, Iron Ore (H), Limestone, manganese, granite, tin|
|17||Malkangiri||Bauxite, Limestone, tin|
|18||Mayurbhanj||China Clay, Iron Ore (H), manganese, Quartz/silica sand, Quartzite, talc/steatite, titanium, Copper, granite, nickel|
|19||Nuapada||Graphite, Limestone, granite|
|21||Sundergarh||Bauxite, China Clay, Dolomite, fireclay, Limestone, manganese, Quartz/silica sand, Quartzite, Lead, Silver|
|22||Sambalpur||China Clay, Coal, Dolomite, fireclay, Garnet, Limestone, manganese, Quartz/silica sand, sillimanite, talc/steatite, Copper, granite|
|23||Rayagada||Bauxite, Graphite, Quartz/silica sand, granite|
Some Other Mineral specific Explanation
- DISTRIBUTION –Nuapada District
- LOCATION -Kalamidadar valley of Nuapada district Mahanadi river bed particularly from Binika in Subarnapur district to Madhapur in Boudh district
- GEOLOGY –Diamond occurrences are associated with olivine-lamproite pipes within Bastar cratonic complex or at the interface of Bastar cratonic complex and Proterozoic cover sediments around Kalamidadar of Nuapada district . The secondary diamond occur in association with pebble and gravel of Mahanadi river particularly from Binika in Subarnapur district to Madhapur in Boudh district
- USES- Jewelllery, oil drilling, grinding, cutting & polishing,
- DISTRIBUTION –Sambalpur District
- LOCATION -Charbati, Beldihi
- GEOLOGY -Associated with Eastern Ghats Granulite Belt interbanded with mafic and ultramafic complexes, anorthosites, and alkaline complexes intruded by granites, pegmatites and quartz vein Contact of beryl bearing pegmatite with ultramafic rocks
- USES-As semi-precious stone
- DISTRIBUTION -Mayurbhanj District/ Kendujhar District/ Sundargada District/ Koraput District/ Anugul District
- LOCATION -Suriagoda, Jagaguda, Ghutudihi, Maredihi, Janudihi, Jhabukucha, Jharadihi, Amdiha, Joshipur, Surda Dhusurapahar (Suleipat)/ Gopur, Salaikena, Dimirimunda, Rangadihi, Gajipur, Odal, Kushkala, Kardangi, Kalima, Koilisuta/ Digajharan, Malidihi, Ghoger/ DasmantpurGovindpalli, Kusumghati, Kyang, Kaliaguda
- GEOLOGY -Occur within boulder-pebblyquartz conglomerate associated with metasediments and metabasites of Iron Ore super Group / Occur within quartz vein associated with Iron Ore Super Group of rocks/ On the bank of Ib river/ On the bank of Kolab river/ In Tikira river
- USES -Ornament, metallurgical etc.
QUARTZ & QUARTZITE
- DISTRIBUTION -Boudh, Baragada, Kandhamal, Kendujhar, Jharsuguda, Kalahandi, Mayurbhanj, Nuapada, Subarnapur, Nabrangpur, Rayagada & Koraput districts
- LOCATION -Numerous occurrences of Boudh, Baragada, Kandhamal, Kendujhar, Jharsuguda, Kalahandi, Mayurbhanj, Nuapada, Subarnapur, Nabrangpur, Rayagada & Koraput districts
- GEOLOGY -Quartz occurs in the form of veins and as a constituent of pegmatites. In Orissa, quartz and silica sand deposits are located in the Precambrian terrains Quartzite occurs as beds interstratified with other metal
- USES -Ceramic, fertilizers, abrasives, electrical, paint, rubber, chemical and textile industries with different specifications. Transparent varieties of quartz such as rock crystals, amethyst, citrine, rose quartz and smoky quartz are used as semiprecious gem stones. Quartz is a piezoelectric material and is used in radio circuit, radars, ultrasonic devices, chronometers etc. Quartzites are used in refractory, iron and steel making, ferro-silicon, glass & ceramics etc
- DISTRIBUTION -Anugul – Dhenkanal District / SambalpurJharsuguda Dist
- LOCATION -Talcher Coalfield/ Ib River Coalfield
- GEOLOGY -In the Barakar and Karaharbari formation of Lower Gondwana/ Kamthi/Raniganj Formation
- USES -Thermal power generation
- DISTRIBUTION -Mayurbhanj District
- LOCATION -Joshipur, Chanchbani, Dumuria, Jamda, Kadodiha, Jamkeswar & Thakurmunda .Dhobadiha, Kalapathuria, Sorisbari, Jamkesar, Kalikapur, Ramchandrapur, Kathkaranjia, Nanua, Nijli, Mangalpur, Tikasil etc
- GEOLOGY -Occur in a long belt stretching from southern Singbhum to Mayurbhanj extending upto Kendujhar in the Singbhum Granite belt
- USES -Ceramic, pottery industry, cement industry, textile, paper, rubber, paint
- DISTRIBUTION -Malkangiri District
- LOCATION -MV – 76 Uruvalley Madatalguda Billiguda Maharajpalli MV-114 MV-96
- GEOLOGY -Occur in the contact of granite gneiss and amphibolites
- Uses- Used for asbestos cement products such as asbestos cement sheets, pipes, brake linings, insulation mill boards, asbestos paper, and fire proof paints, clothes etc
TIN ORE (Cassiterite)
- DISTRIBUTION – Malkangiri District
- LOCATION -Bijapadar, Vederupalli, Durmaguda, Mohapadar, Kurumpalli, Gurupada, Permanasu
- GEOLOGY -Associated with metasedimentari es and metabasics of Bengpal Group intruded by pegmatites and quartz veins and also as secondary placers
- USES -Tin metal, packing material, tin plates, alloys with other metals, chemical use
- DISTRIBUTION -Koraput District / Raygada District/ Malkangiri District/ Kalahandi District/ Kandhamal District/ Kendujhar District/ Sundargada District/ Baphilimali, Sasubohumali, Pasangmali, Majhigaonmali, Sijimali, Tikrimali, Budharajamali, Taljhir, Dabuguda, Nangalghatmali etc/ Korkanda, Siktapalli and Korpalli/ KarlapatPollingpadar,KutrumaliTangridongar,Lanjigarh Niyamgiri,Keluamali, Krishunmali etc/ Anamini Parbat, RukuniCuttack, Demoli, Ushabali etc/ Tantra, Kodalia , Jaldihi, Kusumdihi etc.
- LOCATION -Panchpatmali, Pottangi, Maliparbat, Ballada, Kodingamali, Hatimali, Kakrimali, Chintamgundi, Kornapadikonda, Medamgundi etc.
- GEOLOGY -Associated with Eastern Ghat Super Group of Rocks i.e. Khondalites and Charnockites; Occur as blankets capping the parent rocks on plateau tops.
- USES -Aluminium industry Refractory industry Chemical industry Petroleum industry
- DISTRIBUTION -Kendujhar District/ Sundargada District/ Mayurbhanj District/ Jajpur District
- LOCATION -Roida-Bhadrasahi, Unchabali, Jajang, Jurudi, Belkundi, Bolani, Khandbandh, Katamati, Thakurani, Gandhamardan, Joda-East, Haromoto, Guali, Kasia, Malangtoli etc. / Barsuan,Taldihi, Kalta, Khajuridihi, Ganua, Koira, Kurmitarpahar, Rantha, Mankarnacha, , Badamgarh pahar, Baliapahar MithihurdaBasada etc./ Suleipat, Ghusura, Gorumahisani, Badampahar, etc.
- GEOLOGY -Iron ore bands occur in layered BIF along with volcanosedimentary rock piles known as Iron Ore Super Group
- USES -Pig iron Sponge iron Steel Blast Furnace Alloys
- DISTRIBUTION -Ganjam Coast/ Puri Coast
- LOCATION -All along Ganjam coast from A.P.-Orissa border to Ganjam-Puri border. Important Sector are: Gopalpur Sector, Chhatrapur Sector and Prayagi Sector / On both side of Chilka lake PaikirapurBajrakot Sector and Brahmagiri Sector
- GEOLOGY -Eastern Ghats Super Group of rocks on weathering release the heavy minerals ,which are carried into the sea by many rivers , tidal waves, littoral drift, wind action etc. have played their part in the concentration of heavy minerals.
- Ilmenite : Source of titanium, used for manufacture of titanium dioxide & ferro-titanium alloys
- Rutile: Source of titanium used for titanium dioxide pigment welding electrodes production of titanium sponge & metal
- Zircon: Foundaries, ceramics, refractories
- Sillimanite: Manufacture of high temperature refractories
- Garnet: Used as abrasive
- Monazite: Production of Rare Earth Compounds – Thorium, Uranium Helium