Autosomal recessive syndrome of disturbance of amino acid transport characterized by deposition of cystine crystals in numerous tissues of the body, particularly evident in the conjunctiva and cornea. Children in whom cystinosis is found are subnormal in development, with dwarfing, rickets, and osteoporosis. Renal tubular disease, aminoaciduria, glycosuria, and hypokalemia are usually present. Cystinosis occurs primarily in children; only two cases are believed to have been observed in adults. The syndrome has been described in siblings but not in different generations. It is of a simple Mendelian character.
Adenovirus Tubulointerstitial Nephritis
Renal allograft involvement for Adenovirus infection is rare and can manifest as necrotizing tubulointerstitial nephritis and space-occupying lesion. The common differential diagnoses include BK and CMV mediated interstitial nephritis for the most part when viral inclusions are present. However, presence of severe necrotizing granulomatous lesions with predominant neutrophilic inflammation would be considered characteristic for Adenovirus.
Chyluria, also called chylous urine, is a medical condition involving the presence of chyle in the urine stream, which results in urine appearing milky white. The condition is usually classified as being either parasitic or non parasitic. It is a condition that is more prevalent among people of Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Chyluria appearance is irregular and intermittent. It may last several days, weeks or even months. There are several factors that trigger Chyluria recurrence.
Diuresis is increased urination and the physiologic process that produces such an increase. It involves extra urine production in the kidneys as part of the body's homeostatic maintenance of fluid balance. In healthy people, the drinking of extra water produces mild diuresis to maintain the body water balance. Many people with health problems such as heart failure and kidney failure need diuretic medications to help their kidneys deal with the fluid overload of edema. These drugs help the body rid itself of extra water via the extra urine. The concentrations of electrolytes in the blood are closely linked to fluid balance, so any action or problem involving fluid intake or output (such as polydipsia, polyuria, diarrhea, heat exhaustion, starting or changing doses of diuretics, and others) can require management of electrolytes, whether through self-care in mild cases or with help from health professionals in moderate or severe cases.
Renal cortical necrosis
Renal cortical necrosis (RCN) is a rare cause of acute kidney failure. The condition is "usually caused by significantly diminished arterial perfusion of the kidneys due to spasms of the feeding arteries, microvascular injury, or disseminated intravascular coagulation" and is the pathological progression of acute tubular necrosis. It is frequently associated with obstetric catastrophes such as abruptio placentae and septic shock, and is three times more common in developing nations versus industrialized nations (2% versus 6% in causes of acute kidney failure).
Kidney stones are another common kidney problem. They occur when minerals and other substances in the blood crystallize in the kidneys, forming solid masses (stones). Kidney stones usually come out of the body during urination. Passing kidney stones can be extremely painful, but they rarely cause significant problems.
Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli. Glomeruli are extremely small structures inside the kidneys that filter the blood. Glomerulonephritis can be caused by infections, drugs, or congenital abnormalities (disorders that occur during or shortly after birth). It often gets better on its own.
Polycystic kidney disease
Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder that causes numerous cysts (small sacs of fluid) to grow in the kidneys. These cysts can interfere with kidney function and cause kidney failure. (It’s important to note that individual kidney cysts are fairly common and almost always harmless. Polycystic kidney disease is a separate, more serious condition.)
Urinary tract infections
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are bacterial infections of any part of the urinary system. Infections in the bladder and urethra are the most common. They are easily treatable and rarely lead to more health problems. However, if left untreated, these infections can spread to the kidneys and cause kidney failure.
Glycosuria or glucosuria is the excretion of glucose into the urine. Ordinarily, urine contains no glucose because the kidneys are able to reabsorb all of the filtered glucose from the tubular fluid back into the bloodstream. Glycosuria is nearly always caused by elevated blood glucose levels, most commonly due to untreated diabetes mellitus. Rarely, glycosuria is due to an intrinsic problem with glucose reabsorption within the kidneys (such as Fanconi syndrome), producing a condition termed renal glycosuria. Glycosuria leads to excessive water loss into the urine with resultant dehydration, a process called osmotic diuresis.
Acute kidney injury
Acute kidney injury is sudden damage to the kidneys. In many cases it will be short term but in some people it may lead to long-term chronic kidney disease. The main causes are:
- damage to the actual kidney tissue caused by a drug, severe infection or radioactive dye
- Obstruction to urine leaving the kidney (for example because of kidney stones or an enlarged prostate).
People who have chronic kidney disease are also at increased risk of acute kidney injury.
Chronic kidney disease
More often, kidney function worsens over a number of years. This is known as chronic kidney disease. Sometimes it can progress to end stage kidney disease, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to keep you alive.
There are different causes of chronic kidney disease, the key ones being:
- damaged blood vessels to the kidneys due to high blood pressure and diabetes
- attacks on the kidney tissue by disease or the immune system (glomerulonephritis)
- the growth of cysts on the kidneys (polycystic kidney disease)
- damage due to backward flow of urine into the kidneys (reflux nephropathy)
- congenital abnormalities of the kidney or urinary tract.
There are many other causes of kidney disease, and sometimes the cause is not known. Regardless of the cause of the disease, some parts of the treatment are common to all. However, your doctor will always attempt to find the cause of your kidney disease as it may have important implications. If the cause of your kidney disease is genetic or unknown, your doctor may recommend your relatives also be checked.