Climate of Odisha

Climate of Odisha
Geograraphical and Regional Situation (Physiography) of Odisha
 Odisha is a state on the eastern seaboard of India, located between 170 degree 49’ and 220 degree 36’ North latitudes and between 810 36’ and 870 18’ East longitudes.
 It spreads over an area of 1,55,707 sq km. and is largely divided into four geographical regions, i.e.
1. Northern Plateau
2. Central River Basins
3. Eastern Hills
4. Coastal Plains.
 Odisha has a 480 km coastline.
 Its population was 4,19,47,358 as per the 2011 census of India.
 Administratively, the state is divided into 30 districts, 58 sub-divisions, 314 blocks (administrative units in descending order of geographical area and population of Odisha) and 103 urban local bodies.
 The average density of population is about 269 per sq km. with significantly higher density in the coastal areas compared to the interior parts.
 Odisha is surrounded by
1. West Bengal in the North East,
2. Bihar in North,
3. Andhra Pradesh on the South East,
4. Madhya Pradesh in the West
5. Bay of Bengal in the East.
 The area of Odisha is divided into two natural divisions:
1. The Coastal Plain
2. North Western Plateau.
 Mahanadi is a very large river crosses through the state and its big delta merges into the deltas formed by the Brahmani and the Baitarani in Bay of Bangal.
 The deltas are fertile and are provided with irrigation facilities to the State.
Climate of Odisha
 The climate of Odisha, an East India regional state that hugs the coast of the Bay of Bengal is represented by tropical monsoon weather.
 Searing hot summers with significantly high monsoon downpours and cool and pleasant winters mark the Odisha climate.
 There are three major seasons –
1. Summer (March-June),
2. Rainy Season (July-September)
3. The winter (October-February).
 The climate of Odisha is noticeably related to the geography of Odisha.
 The weather of Odisha can be classified under three heads namely, summer, monsoon and winter.
 The state is also gifted with relatively short stints of the refreshing spring and the mellow autumn.
 The scorching heat of the Odisha summer makes the mercury soars to unbearable heights.
 Monsoon soon creeps in to offer a welcome break.
 During monsoon, the cumulonimbus clouds unfold with pouring rains that wash the terrains and unfold a rich blue sky.
 By early June, the southwest monsoon announces its arrival in Odisha and departs by the middle of October.
 Rainfall is the main source of fresh water in Odisha that varies from 1200 mm to 1700 mm across the state.
 The average rainfall in Odisha is precise as 1482 mm.
 Odisha receives about 78% of rainfall between the months of June and September. Odisha receives the remaining 22% of the rainfall throughout the year.
 The rains also play a pivotal role in agriculture, the principal source of livelihood of the populace of Odisha.
The state can be divided into ten agro-climatic zones on the basis of soil, weather and other relevant characteristics of the State. Odisha state land can be classified into three categories namely low, medium and up-lands.
Table showing Agro-climatic zone of the State
Agro-Climatic Zone of Odisha
Sl. No. Agro-Climatic Zone Climate Mean Annual Rainfall (in MM) Soil Group
1 North western plateau Hot & Moist 1648 Mixed red & yellow
2 North central plateau Hot & Moist 1535 Red
3 North eastern coastal plain Hot & moist subhumid 1568 Coastal alluvial
4 East & south eastern coastal plain Hot & Moist 1449 Deltaic alluvial & laterite
5 North eastern ghat Hot & moist subhumid 1597 Red loam & brown forest
6 Eastern Ghat highland Warm & humid 1522 Red & laterite
7 South eastern Ghat Warm & humid 1522 Red
8 Western undulating Warm & moist 1527 Red & black
9 West central table land Hot & Moist 1527 Mixed red & black
10 Mid central table land Hot & dry subhumid 1421 Red & laterite

Season of Odisha in a Calendar Year
 Summer (March-June) Season: During the summer season, Odisha experience a harsh climate with the maximum temperature as much as 40 deg C.
 Rainy Season (July-September): The Southwest monsoons heads to Odisha in the beginning of June take the entire state under its influence by July. The south-west monsoons withdraw completely by mid-October. Some coastal regiom of the state also experience cyclone and tornado during this time.
 Winter Season (October-February): The winter season brings chilly weather to Odisha with the minimum temperature going down to as much as 7 deg C.

Specific Region wise Climatic Feature
Odisha has three different climates and is dominated by Aw.
Classification based on Koppen-Geiger
Classification Count Köppen-Geiger Examples

Tropical savanna climate 619 Aw Cuttack, Rourkela, Bhubaneswar, Sambalpur, Jeypore

Humid subtropical climate 37 Cwa Koira, Lakshmipur, Khejuri, Kalta, Kuanr

Hot-summer Mediterranean climate 1 Csa Meghahatuburu

Some are specific Climatic Conditions
Cuttack
 The climate in Cuttack is tropical.
 The summers here have a good deal of rainfall, while the winters have very little.
 This climate is considered to be Aw according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification.
 The average annual temperature is 27.6 °C in Cuttack.
 About 1515 mm of precipitation falls annually.
ROURKELA
 The climate here is tropical.
 In winter, there is much less rainfall in Rourkela than in summer.
 According to Köppen and Geiger, this climate is classified as Aw.
 The average annual temperature in Rourkela is 26.5 °C.
 Precipitation here averages 1448 mm.
BHUBANESWAR
 Bhubaneswar has a tropical climate.
 In winter, there is much less rainfall in Bhubaneswar than in summer.
 This location is classified as Aw by Köppen and Geiger.
 The average annual temperature is 27.4 °C in Bhubaneswar.
 The average annual rainfall is 1505 mm.
JEYPORE
 Jeypore’s climate is classified as tropical.
 The summers are much rainier than the winters in Jeypore.
 This climate is considered to be Aw according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification.
 The average annual temperature is 24.7 °C in Jeypore. About 1527 mm of precipitation falls annually.