Nanotechnology relates to the technology of rearranging and processing of atoms and molecules to fabricate material to Nano specifications such as nano meters, the technology will enable scientist and engineers to see and manipulate matter at the molecular level atom by atom create new structure with fundamentally new molecular organic material and exploit the novel prospects at that scale
Scientific achievements of Nanotechnology the concept was first introduced in the year 1959 by an American scientist Richard Feynman who in his famous lectures there stated that there is a plenty of room left at the bottom indirectly mentioned about the techniques of manipulating matter at the bottom level including atoms and molecules the term nanotechnology was Defined by Tokyo scientist University professor in 1974 ,the main objective of Nanotechnology construction of new properties such as they are lighter smaller stronger and more precise
There are two approach in nanotechnology top down approach and bottom up approach.
In Top down approach Naino objects are constructed from real entities but it is expensive and time consuming the bottom up approach bills larger structure by Linking atoms by atoms using special molecular assembler it is based on a novel of the self assembly technique which is seen in the biological principle of Cell to cell attachment in the tissue repairing process
Nanomaterial can be organic nanomaterial or inorganic
Carbon based graphene and carbon nanotubes
Inorganic Nanomaterials include non particle nanoparticles of aluminium copper augur metal oxide like zinc oxide Nanomaterials , which are used to reduce to nanoscale can be of so different properties compared to word the exhibit on ARM and microscale enabling unique application the vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume lead to all changes in physical thermal and catalytic properties of Nanomaterials
Graphene :- the noble prize of Physics 2010 was awarded to to scientist for identification isolation and characterization of crossing which is a single layer of carbon put in a heads up configuration with Tuli crystalline structure it is composed of carbon atoms arranged in tightly bound structure just one attempt it is said that 3 million sheet of graphene on top of each other would be 1 millimetre thick properties of Graphene are:- extreme strength high electrical conductivity
Application of Graphene :- it can be used to make super strong material which art in elastic and lightweight to be used in making satellite and airplane it is transparent conductive and can be used in making flexible ultra thin touch screen devices graphing chips work faster than those made out of silicon and also tightly packed and can help make efficient computer it also increases the heat resistant and mechanical strength
Carbon nanotube is graphene sheet rolled to form a cylinder nanotube it is hollow and its molecule discovered by Japanese researcher it is high strength strongest and is toughest material on earth in terms of tensile strength which is the ability to be distant stretching ,high electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity.
Nanosensors it is a device that make use of unique properties of Nanomaterials and nanoparticles to detect and new type of events in nanoscale
Chemical nanosensor are used to measure the magnitudes such as the concentration of a given gas the presence of a specific type of molecule the function of the most common type of chemical nanosensor is based on the fact that electronic properties of Carbon nanotube changed when different type of nanotubes are observed on top of them which locally increases or decreases the number of electrons able to move through carbon nanotube biological Nano sensor used to monitor biomolecular process for Jazz antibody antigen interaction it is usually composed of biological recognition system or bioreactor such as antibody protein and is able to detect cancer virus or bacteria
Nanocomposite materials created by introducing nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes into the matrix of microscopic sample material and the resulting nanocomposite may exhibit drastically enhanced properties
Application of Nanotechnology information and technology and electronics textile industry
In the field of Information Technology nanotech can be used to make tiny transistors of carbon nanotubes that help in developing Naino circuit this will lead to further miniaturization of computers making even more faster and compact the use of carbon nano Tech builders strongly increase the data storage capacity of hard disc replacing CRT with CMD as an electron gun can increase the efficiency of LED including achieving ultra thin flat panels automobiles Network Technology will help in manufacturing is stronger yet lighter and trees Recruiter automobile components the increase in surface area and volume ratio of engine due to use of CNT will make them utilise fuel more efficiently and reduce the exhaust of pollutant the engine will also benefit by becoming more heat resistant textile industry nanofiber make clothes water and it rain repellent and wrinkle free the Lotus is that which give the self cleaning properties also indirectly imported Lotus effect is seen in the Lotus in the form of presence of numerous hydrophobic Nano components due to which the water droplet by taking the dirt Trickle down there by self cleaning the loade
Nanomedicine Nanotechnology in area of Health and Science her giving rise to branch of medicine known as nanomedicine which is unique application which can be used in disease diagnosis Nanotechnology in able the development of nanoscale Diagnostic device in the form of leopard ship acting as bio Nano electromechanical devices through which when blood sample is made to pass through it can detect cancer bacterial and viral infection lab on chip deals with handling of small fluid volume less than equal in this low low fluid volume conception produces less waste and analyses is better faster
Drug Delivery Nano Technology can be used in formation of nanosized drugs which will help in lowering overall truck conduction and side effects by depositing active agent at specific places in body there by ensuring truck delivery with self precession this will improve bioavailability of drug which refer to rate and extent of absorption of drugs
Cancer diagnosis and treatment cancer diagnosis and treatment nanotechnology can locate and eliminate cancer cell using gold nanoshells Metro sales are targeted to bind cancerous cell by attaching antibodies to Nano self service bi irradiating area of the mall with an infrared laser which passed through breast feeding gold nanoshell significantly to cause death of Cancer cell
Tissue engineering nanotechnology can help to repair damaged tissue through tissue engineering making eating factor it includes use of a biodegradable nanomaterial such as polycaprolactone coated with collagen to promote Cell to cell attachment it is repairing process
Medical nanorobots nanorobot is a technique of creating robot at microscopic scale of NM these nanosized robots can never get human body transport important molecules manipulate manual focus object and communicate with solution by way of miniature Centre this computer control nanorobots can be used in Cancer detection and treatment there is no dressed up as Radiation therapy and chemotherapy which open end up destroying Mohanlal fan control robot will be able to distinguish between different cell type cancerous and normal cell by checking their surface antigen medical nanorobots acting as artificial RBC are called the Spiro cried which can deliver hundred times of season than normal self Shimla Lee medical nanorobots acting as artificial white blood cell can destroy bacteria in process
Energy application nanotechnology not only use of renewable and environment friendly source of energy but increase efficiency of energy production by then the ideal fuel for future is said to be hydrogen due to its lightweight and environmental harmless is hydrogen fuel cells were used in automobiles air pollution would be reduced but it can be used only if hydrogen is stored and transported in safe efficient and economical be by using container is made up of nanomaterial nanomaterial can increase conversion efficiency of solar cell under photovoltaic effect by using nanoparticles of Indian selenide is solar LG into electrical energy when compared to present use of Silicon Solar cell smart Windows having Nano coating of vanadium dioxide mixed with tungsten metal act as heat reflective still alone all visible light to pass through window the smart Windows are designed to Z and Adobe to the environment by altering Nano thickness and mixture of coating this makes offices and home today mankol without excessive use of AC there by drastically reducing financial and environmental cost
Nanofiltration nanotechnology can be helpful for wastewater treatment producing safe and clean drinking water extremely small size of possible filtration of bacteria and other infection agent nanoparticles of iron oxide are extremely effective at binding and removing arsenic from groundwater there by preventing arsenic groundwater poisoning Santhanam nanoparticle absorb phosphates from aqueous environment applying these in bonds and tools effectively remove available for sides and brother and growth and multiplication of LT that is a lead role so this will benefit commercial fishponds with spend huge amount of money to the remove algae
Agriculture nanotechnology has potential to Revolution allies agriculture sector by becoming integral part of Precision farming it is the site specific form of Management using information technology to maximize output that is crop yield while minimising infoset fertilizers and pesticides through geographic information system this will increase the quality of decision making which in turn will make weed control pest control and fertilizer application site specific size and effective
Can customer goods smart packaging and food safety and Technology will help develop a smart packaging to optimise product sales like nanocomposite coating process could improve food packaging by placing antimicrobial agent directly on sources of Kotak self nanocomposite could modify the behaviour of files by increasing their barrier properties including mechanical chemical and microbial example silicate nanoparticle can reduce entrance of Oxygen and prevent exit of myself while silver nanoparticle import antimicrobial which include antibacterial and antifungal properties Nano Technology can help to detect contamination of food and prevent Biotech by using an infectious bacteria or virus.