: The Vedas are considered the earliest literary record of the Indo-Aryan Civilisation. It is the most sacred scriptures of India. They were meant to be mantras in praise of various Aryan Gods. The word vedas means wisdom, knowledge or vision. There are four vedas:
- Rig veda
- Sama Veda
- Yajur veda
- Atharva veda
Each veda consists of four parts:
- Samhitas- A collection of mantras or hymns
- Brahmans- Ritualistic text and include guidelines and religious duties.
- The Aranyakas (theology)- They mean forest texts intend to serve as a guide of meditation for ascetics who live in forest and lead a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from various sorts of worldly pleasures often with the aim of pursuing religious and spiritual goals.
- The Upanishads- The Upanishads form the concluding portions of the veda and therefore called the “Vedanta” or the end of Veda and contain the essence of veda teaching.