DMPQ: Explain the following term: a) Khud kashta b) PahiKashta c) Antyaja d) Jama e) Hasil

Khudkasht:          Those residential peasants living in their own village, owning their own land and implements, paying the land-revenue at a concessional rate, formed the governing body of the village community. Also called mirasdars in Maharashtra and gharu-hala in Rajasthan.

Pahi-kasht:          These peasants were basically outsiders but cultivated the rented land in a vil­lage either by staying in the same village (residential pahi-kasht) or by staying in the neighbouring villages (non-residential pahi-kasht).

Antyaja:               Even among such jāti-s, a few were pushed to the lowest rung of the social ladder because of their unclean food habits and amoral attitude which were unacceptable to the rest of society. Hence they were named as ‘antyaja’ (‘the last-born’).Probably for the same reason they were also considered aspṛśyas or untouchables. However, neither in the Vedas nor in the earlier smṛtis and dharmaśāstras it has been mentioned of them being treated as such, but only as śudras. The practice of untouchability seems to be a post-Vedic phenomenon.

Jama and hasil: The arrangements for collection of land revenue consisted of two stages : first assessment and then actual collection. The Jama was the amount assessed whereas the Hasil was the amount received or collected.

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