There were certain basic constraints before the congress ministries could undertake a complete overhaul of the agrarian structure by completely abolishing zamindari. These constraints were:
- The ministries did not have adequate powers.
- There were inadequate financial resources as a lion’s share was appropriated by the Government of India.
- Strategy of class adjustments was another hurdle since zamindars, etc. had to be conciliated and neutralised.
- There was constraint of time since the logic of congress politics was confrontation and not cooperation with colonialism.
- War clouds had started hovering around 1938.
- The reactionary second chamber dominated by landlords, moneylenders and capitalist in United provinces, Bihar, Bombay, Madras and Assam had to be conciliated as its support was necessary for legislations.
- The agrarian structure was too complex and complicated.
In spite of these constraints, the congress ministries manage to legislate a number of laws relating to land reforms, debt relief, forest grazing fee, arrears of rent, land tenures etc.