Horticulture in Odisha
The agro-climatic conditions are immensely suitable for perennial fruit crops like mango, litchi, guava, oranges and limes; annual fruit crops like banana, pineapple and papaya ; spices like ginger, turmeric and chilly, a variety of roots and tubers and a whole range of vegetables. The low-temperature hilly areas at higher altitude offer ideal conditions for growing off-season vegetables. Of late fl oriculture is also showing excellent prospects. The State thus enjoys a natural comparative advantage for horticulture with possibilities for growing a diversifi ed basket of fruits, vegetables, spices, tubers and fl owers; whose potential has not been fully exploited. Paddy is mainly grown in the Low & Medium land in a consolidated manner. So, there is vast scope to convert the uplands and waste lands of the state for Horticultural crops.
The present gross cropped area under horticulture is 13.61 lakh hectares, which is about 20% of the net shown area. It can safely be increased to 20 lakh hectares during coming ten years. Out of a total of 41 lakh hectares covered under paddy during Kharif season, upland paddy constitutes about 9.58 lakh hectares. Some of these upland paddy areas and some medium land under irrigated ayacuts may be suitably diversifi ed for horticulture plantations and vegetable cultivation.
Horticulture As A Livelihood of Tribal Households in Odisha
The tribes constitute 22.43 per cent of the total State population of Odisha (Rajkhisor, 2007). Most of them are desperately poor, backward, generally uneducated and lead a hard and miserable life . Although Rayagada and Koraput districts are very suitable for horticultural crops, a very small percentage (5.83) of the tribal households had horticulture as a primary livelihood source. Besides horticulture as the primary source of income of the households, tribal families had undertaken it as secondary and tertiary livelihood options also.
Backyard fruit tree plantation, vegetable cultivation, kitchen garden etc. were important activities under this sector. Main kitchen garden crops were maize, beans, pumpkin, leafy vegetables, jhata (popat), onion, garlic, brinjal, tomato etc. Some of tribals in Kashipur block have gone for mango and cashew planting of elite varieties, which was yet to come under fruiting. In their weekly market, they sold out their horticultural products such as papaya, jackfruit and pine apple and in exchange they took kerosene, salt, chicken etc.
In addition to fruit and vegetable cultivation in their homestead and field, the tribal families were heavily depending upon the collection, processing and sale of horticultural produce from the forest which is very important source of food and income for their households. Between March and May of every year (lean season in agriculture), the tribal households depend on horticultural forest products for their livelihoods.
Suggestions for the better development of horticulture
- Region specific interventions such as specific crops i.e. on fruits, vegetables, spices, MAP, fl owers & plantation crops or varieties for particular region or agro climatic situation are to be selected.
2 . Adequate R&D support through OUAT, KVKs & other ICAR Institutes.
- Vegetable crops should be selected basing on market demand to avoid glut.
- Onion & Potato crops should be be taken up in cluster.
- Different farming system modules may be developed and farmers interested in specific systems may be grouped accordingly:
(a) Rice based system: Paddy-Potato- Cucurbit/Greens
(b) Vegetable based system (irrigated): Vegetable round the year in uplands. Priority to off-season / high value vegetables. Crops of different families to be taken up in sequence.
(c) Pond based System: Fish / Poultry / Duckery in pond and short term fruits / vegetables on bonds.
(d) Fruit based System: Fruit crops with suitable inter crops / mixed with short term fruits. Fodder crops can be taken up as inter crop looking to the diary population of the area.
- Introduction of new high value crops like strawberry, lettuce, broccoli with traditional fruits & vegetables.
- Rejuvenation of old orchards & canopy management. A series of Front line Demonstrations should be conducted on canopy management at farmers level involving OUAT, ICAR Institutes / KVKs.
- Popularisation of horticulture tools and implements to reduce drudgery.
9.Involvement of private entrepreneurs for production of vegetable seeds to be encouraged.
- Plantation crops such as Rubber, Coffee, Tea etc. including Cashew and Coconut are to be encouraged. Clear market linkages should be developed and ancillary industries should be established in the plantation area.
- Post harvest Management, Value Addition and Marketing linkages with formation of FPOs and federating them for better remuneration.
Government Plans & Schemes for horticulture development
Strengthening of School of Horticulture : Rs 20.00 lakhs School of Horticulture, Khurda provides training facilities to the unemployed youths under NHM programme. Besides, it provides institutional in-services as well as pre-service training to the field staff under Directorate of Horticulture. An amount of Rs 56.00 lakhs is required for construction of new Girls Hostel (32 seats). During 08-09, Rs 17.00 lakhs (Rs12.5 lakh under NHM + Rs 4.5 lakh under State Plan) has been allotted for this. During 2009-10, an amount of Rs 20.00 lakh has been kept in provision for this purpose against the total requirement of Rs 39.00 lakhs for the hostel.
Human Resource Development:
(1). Exposure Visit to Out side the State: Training and Shows are the important for up-gradation of technical knowledge of the farmers. “Seeing is the believing”, to satisfy the quote it is desirable to send farmers to outside the state on exposure visit for increasing their technical know-how. It is proposed to send 40 farmers outside the state.
(2). Organisation of District level show: Six nos. of District Level Shows will be organized to disseminate the latest knowledge in the field of horticulture and to increase the competitiveness among farmers.
(3). Plantation Training to farmers (50 nos. per group): It has been programmed to impart plantation training to 14 groups with 50 farmers per group to disseminate the technical know-how for taking up a successful plantation.
The demand for organically produced food items is increasing day by day. There is great demand in the export market also for the organically produced items. To promote organic farming, assistance will be provided to the farmers for construction of vermi compost units.
National Horticulture Mission
Rs 786.87 lakhs The main objectives under National Horticulture Mission are to increase production of suitable fruits in the state thus enhance the economic status of the farmers, promotion of export oriented agro based industries through provision of subsidy on supply of Quality planting materials, training and development of market infrastructure etc. The scheme envisages with a financial assistance from Govt. of India and State Govt. at a ratio of 85:15 basis.
ISOPOM (Oil Palm)
Rs 35.00 lakhs CS – Rs 105.00 lakhs Oil palm is an important commercial crop which needs to be implemented in the state for the economic development of rural poor. The scheme envisages Oil Palm plantation as well as its maintenance in the potential pockets of the state with financial assistance from Govt. of India and State Govt. at a ratio of 75:25.
Horticulture Programme in Non-Mission Districts
This programme envisages establishment of new gardens of fruits and flowers in compact areas, organic farming, training activities etc. in the non-mission districts in the pattern of National Horticulture Mission. The programme will be taken up in the 6 districts which are not covered under NHM programme; namely Jharsuguda, Bhadrak, Jajpur, Kendrapara, Jagatsinghpur and Boudh.
Floriculture is picking up in the State particularly around the urban centers. It is programmed to provide assistance to farmers for cultivation of flower like Marigold, Gladioli and Rose with a financial outlay of Rs.7.39 lakhs.