Animal Husbandry in Odisha
Animal husbandry has tremendous potential for employment generation .Dairy farming. sheep farming, goat farming, poultry farming & pig farming provide excellent opportunity for self employment. This sector has great role to play in poverty reduction and employment generation.
Livestock products account for more than 20 % of the total value of agricultural output in Odisha.Livestock production, furthermore, is partially rural based, contributing significantly to food security and sustainability, in addition to livestock performing a number of social, economic and cultural roles and functions in these areas. Livestock food products are major contributors to a balanced diet.
Livestock Sector in Odisha is highly livelihood intensive and 80% of its rural households own livestock of one species or the other and earn supplementary income for the family. Animal husbandry and poultry farming are expected to play an important role in supplementing the limited income and employment opportunities particularly for the small and marginal holdings. Next to agriculture, animal husbandry is the most important economic activity in the rural Odisha, which is significantly contributing around 4 % to Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). The Department is implementing programmes for breeding, feeding, management of livestock and poultry on scientific methods through the Directorate of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Services, Odisha.
The dairy and the poultry development activities are being accelerated with a view to augment livestock productivity in terms of milk, meat and egg thereby to contribute for food production along with alleviation of rural poverty. There are 540 Veterinary Hospitals/Dispensaries and 2939 Livestock Aid Centers functioning under this department, out of which 130 VDs and 621 LACs are functioning in KBK districts and these veterinary Institutions are providing services to livestock.
Livestock diversity in Odisha
Odisha with its varied culture base inherited from ancient times is endowed with large rivers and dense forest that have helped development of various livestock and poultry species with wide diversity. Its rich animal genetic resource base has been further strengthened by import of various animals by the maritime community of the ancient Kalinga Empire. The historical treatise and sculptures on temples and other archaeological monuments in Odisha give the evidence that the different types of animals such as European draught horses and other precious domestic animals were brought from other countries to Odisha in medieval ages. Besides, various tribal ethnic groups have traditionally preserved varieties of crop as well as livestock population over thousands of years. Recent import of exotic and improved animal breeds by missionaries and government agencies has further strengthened the livestock resources in Odisha.
The State has a strong agricultural and livestock base rich in biodiversity. The sheep and goat found in Odisha are known for their resistance to common endoparasites. They are also highly prolific and possess exceptional quality to survive in water logging condition. Similarly, some of the cattle and buffalo breeds found in Odisha have good qualities for growth reproduction and survivability under summer and saline harsh conditions. Wild types of buffaloes have been found in different regions of State. Odisha possesses rich source of fowl germplasm, which has been patronised since ages by tribals of Koraput, Kalahandi, Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, Phulbani, Sundergarh and other hill districts.
1.Cattle germplasm Characteristics
(a) Motu Breed: Small, milk and drought breed, live on scanty grazing under the open condition throughout the year and are regular breeders.
(b)Birnjharpuri Cattle Breed: A smaller upgraded Haryana type animal.
(c)Ghoomsoori Cattle Breed: Small size, hardy draft breed of Ganjam, Phulbani districts, Odisha extending into Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh.
(d)Kharial Breed: Small sized compact and draught purpose breed.
- Buffalo Germplasm
(a) Parlakhimendi Breed: Medium sized, swamp type to look, milch breed. They are best road graziers, regular breeders.
(b) Manda Breed: Medium sized, breed on hills and forests, hardy and live without housing facilities, best drought ability. Prospectus to improve milk yield is existing. They are having highest fat of South Odisha breeds. Very small population existing.
(c) Jirangi Breed: Small sized, hardy draught purpose, fast working animals bred on hills and high altitude with high fat % in milk.
(d) Kalahandi Breed: Medium sized, very hardy slow working, draught type breed. Well known for longevity.
(e) Kujang Breed: Medium sized, relatively less compact, stand on flood and graze on the river banks, medium milking breed.
- Goat Germplasm
(a) Black Bengal Goat :Small, highly prolific, early prolific, early maturing goat, stands well to water logging conditions. The breed thrives well on grass grazing. Chevon and skin is valued.
(b)Malkangiri Goat: Early maturing, prolific, kidding twice in 14 months, mostly twins, heavy chevon goats.
(c)Raighar Goat: Early maturing, prolific, kidding twice in 14 months, mostly twins sometimes triplets, good milk goat and good chevon quality.
(d)Ganjam breed: Leggy, low prolificacy, late maturing, annual single kidding, slow growing goat with aggressive grazing habit. Goatish odour present.
(e)Narayanapatna breed: A mutton type prolific breed, twin kidding, 14 to 15 month two kiddings, large goat with good udder and teats.
(f)Koraput Hill Goat: Early maturity, prolific, kidding twice in 14 months, mostly give twins, fastest growing goats for chevon production.
- Sheep Germplasm
(a) Kuzi Sheep Breed: Wooly, little breed, highly prolific and best adopt to coast region.
(b) Ganjam Sheep Breed: Hairy, short tail, medium type, less prolific annual single lambing, mutton sheep solely live on road side grazing (in rains).
(c) Koraput Sheep Breed: Coarse wool to hairy, short tail, small to medium size, annual single lambing sheep for mutton.
(d)Machkund strain: Coarse wool, short tail, small size, highly prolific strain, early maturity, Koraput sheep twice lambing in 14 months, some twins and very rarely triplets, mutton type sheep solely live on grazing.
- Poultry Germplasm
(a) Kalahandi Breed : Smallest, early maturing, prolific, high hatchability, fast growing birds living on scrap feeding. Good predator escaping ability.
(b) Vezaguda Breed : Medium size, quick growing, prolific, high hatchability, game type bird.
(c) Dhinki Breed : Large size, quick growing, least feathers, less prolific and low hatchability birds and are individual home fed.
(d) Hazra Breed : Medium to large size, quick growing, prolific poultry breed in Mayurbhanj district. The breast muscle is prominent.
(e) Phulbani Breed : Medium in size, high prolific mostly with rose comb found in Phulbani district.
Dairy development in Odisha
Dairy sub sector plays a vital role in rural economy. The value of output from dairy sectors from milk in Odisha at current price was about Rs. 5583.00 crores during the year 2013-14. This does not include the value out puts derived from fuel, manure, draft power, skin & hides etc. Despite the fl uctuating growth rate in agriculture, the growth rate in dairy sector is steady. The steady and sustainable growth has been achieved despite of the fact that the investment in this sector was not substantial compared to agriculture.
The processing & marketing of milk in the State has taken care by Odisha State Cooperative Milk Producers’ Federation Ltd (OMFED). OMFED was established in the year 1980 under Operation Flood – II programme. Since inception OMFED as the Apex Dairy Cooperative of the State is dedicatedly working for the socio-economic development of the dairy farmers and also serving to meet the requirement of the consumers by ensuring the supply of nutritious pasteurized milk and delicious milk products. As on March-2015, 5409 nos. of self governed village level Dairy Cooperative Societies are organized with 2,77,117 farmer members and procuring on an average 5.50 lakh liters of milk per day.