Money Supply Money supply is the entire stock of currency and other liquid instruments in a country’s economy as of a particular time. The money supply can include cash, coins and balances held in checking and savings accounts. Money Supply can be estimated as narrow or broad money. There are four measures of money supply … Read more


Indian Public Finance Value Added Tax Under the constitution the States have the exclusive power to tax sales and purchases of goods other than newspapers There are however defects of sales tax It is regressive in nature. Families with low income a larger proportion of their income as sales tax. Has a cascading effect – … Read more


Monetary Policies Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency. Objectives of Monetary Policies are:- Accelerated growth of the economy Balancing saving and investments Exchange rate stabilization Price … Read more


Public Finance Public finance is the study of the role of the government in the economy. It is the branch of economics which assesses the government revenue and government expenditure of the public authorities and the adjustment of one or the other to achieve desirable effects and avoid undesirable ones. It includes the study of … Read more


Subsidies- Cash Transfer of Subsidy Issue. A subsidy is a benefit given by the government to groups or individuals usually in the form of a cash payment or tax reduction. The subsidy is usually given to remove some type of burden and is often considered to be in the interest of the public. Direct Cash … Read more


Tax Reforms in India Sience 1990 ie the liberalization of Indian economy saw the beginning of Taxation reforms in the nation. The taxation system in the nation has been subjected to consistent and comprehensive reform. Following factors arise the need for tax reforms in India:- Tax resources must be maximized for increased social sector investment in … Read more


Budgeting Budgeting is the process of estimating the availability of resources and then allocating them to various activities of an organization according to a pre-determined priority. In most cases, approval of a budget also means the approval to various spending units to utilize the allocated resources. Budgeting plays a criucial role in the socio-economic development … Read more

Drain Theory

  Dadabhai Naoroji: ‘Poverty in India’ (1876) He claimed that the drain of wealth and capital from the country which started after 1757 was responsible for absence of development in India. Drain was done through trade, industry and finance Two elements of the drain That arising from the remittances by European officials of their savings, … Read more

Industrial Transition in India

  The process of industrial transition divided into: industrial growth during the 19th century and industrial progress during the 20th century Industrial growth during the 19th century Decline of indigenous industries and the rise of large scale modern industries 1850-55: first cotton mill, first jute mill and the first coal mine established. Railway also introduced. … Read more

India under the British Rule

  The economic consequences of the British rule can be studied under three heads: Decline of Indian Handicrafts and progressive ruralisation of the Indian economy Growth of the new land system and the commercialisation of Indian agriculture Process of industrial transition of India Decline of Handicrafts While India was an exporter of Handicrafts before the … Read more

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